Prostate cancer research

Prostate cancer is cancer that starts in the prostate gland, which is a walnut sized gland at the base of the bladder in men. Around 46,700 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer in the UK each year. That’s 130 cases each day. More than half of the men who are diagnosed with prostate cancer are aged 70 and over. The treatment you receive depends on the type and stage of prostate cancer.

Localised prostate cancer

Localised prostate cancer means the cancer is completely contained within the prostate gland. It hasn’t spread anywhere else in the body.

Treatment options might include:

  • surgery to remove the prostate
  • external radiotherapy, with or without hormone therapy
  • internal radiotherapy (brachytherapy),with or without hormone therapy
  • Internal radiotherapy and external radiotherapy

Locally advanced prostate cancer

Locally advanced prostate cancer means the cancer has broken through the capsule (covering) of the prostate gland. It may have spread into the:

  • tissue around the prostate
  • the tubes that carry semen (seminal vesicles)
  • body organs nearby such as the back passage (rectum) or neck of the bladder
  • lymph nodes close to the prostate glandTreatment options include:
  • external radiotherapy with hormone therapy
  • surgery
  • hormone therapy on its own

Advanced prostate cancer

Advanced prostate cancer means that a cancer that began in the prostate has spread to another part of the body. It is sometimes called metastatic prostate cancer. It most commonly spreads to lymph nodes in other parts of the body or to the bones. It can also spread to other organs.

Treatment might include:

  • hormone therapy
  • chemotherapy
  • steroids
  • external radiotherapy
  • symptom control eg treatment to help bone painIf you only have up to 3, very small areas of cancer spread (oligometastases) your doctor might suggest you have surgery or radiotherapy to the prostate. This treatment would be part of a clinical trial.

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